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News & opinion

1 NOV 2022

Cladding External Wall System (EWS) FAQs

  1. What is an external wall system?

The external wall system (EWS) is made up of the outside wall of a residential building, including cladding, insulation, fire break systems, etc.

  1. What is the EWS1 process/ form?

The EWS1 form is designed to be used for residential properties such as blocks of flats (including those owned by housing associations and social housing providers as well as privately owned), student accommodation, dormitories, assisted living, care homes and Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs).

The EWS1 form is not specifically designed for use of short-term accommodation such as hotels. EWS1 does, however, apply to an entire building or block so where required, may also be relevant to mixed use.

The EWS process, and resulting form, is a set way for a building owner to confirm that an external wall system on residential buildings has been assessed for safety by a suitable expert, in line with government guidance.

The EWS1 process delivers assurance for lenders, valuers, residents, buyers and sellers. The process was developed through extensive consultation with a wide range of stakeholders including fire engineers, lenders, insurers, valuers, and other cross industry representatives.

The process itself involves a "qualified professional" (see download on this page) conducting a fire-risk appraisal on the external wall system, before signing an EWS1 form, which is valid for the entire building for five years.

The form was originally designed following Government advice regarding external wall systems for buildings above 18m and was created to ensure residential buildings over 18m tall could be assessed for safety to allow lenders to offer mortgages. Changes in Government advice in January 2020, brought all residential buildings of any height potentially within scope.

However not every building will require an EWS1 form. RICS has published proportionate guidance for valuers on 8 March 2021 and is working with UK Government and other stakeholders to ensure the guidance is implemented post the effective date of 5 April 2021. This guidance includes criteria that will be used to help decide whether a particular building should need an EWS1 form. Valuers will always need to follow instructions given by their lender clients.

The criteria considers the height of the building, the type of cladding and (in some circumstances) how much of it there is on the building. There are also criteria relating to balconies and combustible material. You should always have a rationale to justify the request for the EWS1 form.

  1. What are the key changes to the EWS1 form published 16 March 2022?

On 16 March 2022, the EWS1 form was updated to reflect the Government Building Safety announcement, notably the immediate withdrawal of the Consolidated Advice Note (CAN) and the publication of BSI PAS9980:2022 – Assessing the external wall fire risk in multi-occupied residential buildings. The form is now electronic and includes version control, so there is a clear audit trail of the rating provided if the same assessor/firm undertakes an EWS on the building.

  1. Do any new government announcements about what buildings are in scope for an EWS assessment render any existing completed EWS1 forms obsolete?

No, they remain valid until such time as a new EWS1 form or updated fire risk assessment including an EWS appraisal is completed.

RICS is aware of blocks of flats where more than one EWS1 Form has been produced. RICS is also aware that Government have advised, under ‘Ministerial Statement (HCWS228) on building safety in medium and lower-rise blocks of flats’ announced in Parliament on 21st July 2021’ that there are recommendations to review all existing EWS1 forms. The building owner is responsible for clarifying which EWS1 Form is current, whether the form is still required, or why more than one form was produced which will normally explain the situation. If needed, the building owner should refer to the professionals involved and where appropriate through the firm’s formal complaint handling procedures.

RICS regulated firms are required to have a formal complaints handling procedure in place and are subject to regulatory oversight. Where there are concerns over a RICS member or firm’s competence or conduct, these can be raised through our formal regulatory process.

RICS can not become involved in professionals registered with other bodies.

  1. Does each flat / apartment have to get an individual EWS1 form for selling, buying, or re-mortgaging?

No. Each EWS1 form is valid for an entire block / building. Each block will require its own EWS1 form. It is valid for five years.

In Scotland, separate EWS1s can be required on a flat-by-flat basis due to its different legal system. We are working with the Scottish Government to find a solution to this issue through the Single Building Assessment (SBA). Further updates on the process in Scotland will be provided in due course.

An updated version of the Scottish Advice Note v2.0 has been published on 16th December 2022 - see this link.

Successful RICS EWS course completers working in Scotland will be required to register as a supplier with Public Contracts Scotland in order to be appointed directly by the Scottish Government. Due to differences in legislation and home ownership in Scotland, direct intervention in issues of combustible cladding  assessment has been necessary. The Scottish Government Single Building Assessment (SBA) is at pilot stage, and will ramp up during 2023 commencing February.

See also the Scottish Advice Note (SAN) v2, which provides advice for those responsible for fire safety in residential buildings including building owners/managers/residents groups responsible for determining the fire risk posed by external wall systems on existing multi-storey residential buildings.

  1. How does the EWS1 form factor into the buying, selling or re-mortgaging of a flat/ apartment?

The EWS1 (external wall system) process, is agreed by representatives for developers, managing agents, fire engineers, lawyers, lenders, insurers, and valuers, and has been adopted across the industry.

Its purpose is to ensure that a valuation can be provided for a mortgage or re-mortgage on a property which features an external wall cladding system of uncertain make up, something that has both safety implications and which may affect value if remediation is required due to the fire risk associated.

The process results in a signed EWS1 form per building, with two options/ outcomes:

Option A - External wall materials are unlikely to support combustion

Option B - Combustible materials are present in an external wall with sub options of either; B1 - fire risk is sufficiently low that no remedial works are required, or B2 fire risk is high enough that remedial works are required.

The EWS1 form itself certifies that the external wall cladding system has been assessed by someone who is suitably qualified to do so. A list of suggested bodies for a building owner or their agents to contact to source fire experts can be found here.

While the form applies to residential buildings, changes in Government advice introduced in January 2020, meant that all residential buildings of any height with a wall system would need to be risk assessed. RICS has produced proportionate guidance to help valuers decide when an EWS1 form should be required, particularly for sub-18m blocks which is still applicable now the Government advice has been withdrawn.

It is also important to note what the form will not do. It is not a life safety certificate. It is only for the use of a valuer and lender in determining if remediation costs affect value. Where a building is found to need remedial works this will need to be carried out by the building owner, to ensure safety of the building, before a mortgage can proceed unless the lender agrees otherwise.

RICS welcomed the proportionate approach outlined in Secretary of State announcements in February 2021 and January 2022,on the additional funding for the removal of dangerous cladding in all qualifying residential properties over 11m. Government funding is something RICS have long called for.

December 2022

All valuers are reminded of the Valuation approach for multi-storey, multi-occupancy residential buildings with cladding professional standard 2022, and this should be read in conjunction with the March 2021 guidance.

  1. If the building owner has not proactively appraised the external wall system what does the seller need to do?

The seller can request that their building owner or managing agent commission an EWS assessment, and / or enquire as to the make-up of the wall system. The building owner or managing agent is responsible for confirming what materials are on their building, and in respect to the EWS1 form, the person responsible for the building needs to confirm what the wall system is made up of and whether an assessment is required.

The Fire Safety Act 2021 makes it clear that a Fire Risk Assessment (FRA) of a residential building must now have consideration (amongst others) to the external wall system. If the FRA is out of date or many years old, it will likely not have considered the EWS make-up. It is the Responsible Persons legal duty to have an up to date FRA.

  1. Can the buyer or seller initiate the EWS1 process if the building owner has not?

The EWS1 process/ form is for building owners to undertake. Both sellers and buyers should be in contact with the building owner or their agent to ensure this takes place as quickly as possible.

  1. If the building owner will not undertake the required assessment, what can the owner/lender/valuer do?

If the building owner does not acknowledge their responsibility and refuses to undertake the necessary assessment, the local council can provide further advice, and it should be referred to the Fire and Rescue Service. No one should be living in a building which is unsafe, and the building owners are the only ones who can progress this.

Building owners have a clear responsibility reinforced by government advice to arrange for the wall system to be checked where necessary and therefore have a route to remediation where needed. Leaseholders should continue to engage with the building owner or their managing agent to ensure this happens.

RICS is working with Government and other stakeholders as part of the Fire Safety Act implementation, which gained Royal Assent at the end of April 2021.

  1. Who carries out the EWS1 assessment, and what is their expertise?

The EWS1 form must be completed by a fully qualified competent member of a relevant professional body within the construction industry with sufficient expertise to identify and assess the relevant materials within the external wall cladding and attachments, including whether fire resisting cavity barriers and fire stopping have been installed correctly.

In addition, in January 2021, RICS launched a new training programme for MRICS/FRICS chartered building surveyors and chartered building control surveyors, to enable them to undertake external wall system assessments for low to medium rise residential buildings below 18m. The newly qualified professionals will help increase the number of professionals qualified to carry out such assessments and support the current market demand, subject to access to professional indemnity insurance. In June 2022, it was announced that a new Government backed professional indemnity insurance scheme for EWS1 assessors will be delivered by MGAM, an Acrisure partner, and SCOR in partnership with the Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities and would commence in September 2022. Buildings over 18m or those which are high risk and require specialist testing will still require a qualified fire safety engineer.

We have been made aware that unqualified people may be signing off EWS1 forms. RICS condemns anyone using the current situation for their own personal gain, with potentially dangerous consequences for residents, and would urge that any further information related to this is made available to trading standards and RICS if appropriate.

UK banks and building societies have robust measures in place to protect people against fraud, which would pick up any EWS1 form that is suspicious, but we encourage everyone to check the signatory on a form with the professional’s institution. If an RICS member is completing your EWS1 form, you can check their membership with us on our website.

There is a list of suggested bodies to contact to source fire experts. This list is not exhaustive, nor does it constitute an endorsement or approval from RICS, UKF or BSA, and other bodies with relevant expertise may be able to assist. Anybody instructing an EWS1 form must be satisfied that the signatory meets the requirements as described above.

  1. How will the assessment be carried out?

This is up to the expert undertaking the assessment, it is recommended this is in accordance with PAS 9980:2022 Assessing the external wall fire risk in multi-occupied residential buildings. It must include evidence of the fire performance of materials used in the cladding.

While paperwork submitted by the building's original developer and/or owner can form part of the evidence, it cannot be solely relied upon. Photo evidence of the cladding system will be required and a physical inspection where this is not available or inconclusive.

In many cases - even where all attempts to establish the cladding system have been taken – the make-up and composition of the external wall system may still be unclear. Intrusive tests may be required, alongside a more detailed review by a professional of a higher level of expertise.

Such tests may involve a hole being drilled into the wall or a section of cladding removed in many locations to identify the external wall system materials and their composition. It is crucially important to identify the whole make-up of the external wall system and how it has been installed.

  1. Why is an EWS1 assessment required every five years?

An EWS1 assessment is required every five years for each building or block. This means multiple sellers located in one block can use the same assessment to assist with the sale of their property.

Five years is intended to capture any renovation or adaptation work done to the building, as well as maintenance over that period.

However, a new EWS1 assessment may be required within the five-year period if substantial works have been completed to a property, affecting the original conclusions.

Now the Fire Safety Act 2021 has been passed, the building owners of all multi-storey, multi-occupied buildings in England will be required to undertake updated fire risk appraisals and assessments of their buildings, which includes, where appropriate, an assessment of the external wall system. Over time therefore the need for EWS1 Forms will fade away, with new EWS1 Forms after 5 years being unlikely as they will have been replaced with a new FRAEW (Fire Risk Appraisal of External Walls) assessment in accordance with PAS9980 to satisfy the Act requirements.

  1. What happens if the EWS1 assessment identifies that remedial works are required?

If an external wall system requires remedial work then we would expect the valuer to take this into consideration in their valuation. Other measures in mitigation such as installation of a fire alarm may mean the cladding does not need remediation. A valuation will only be possible if there is clarity on cost of the work and a timeline for works to be completed. Lenders are unlikely to lend until remedial work has been completed, but some may choose to do so with retentions and the like based on their own risk appetite.

The EWS assessment is for the building owner to oversee, but the resulting report and EWS1 form should be available on request to all occupants in that block in the interests of transparency.

RICS welcomed the Secretary of State announcements in February 2021 and January 2022, on the additional funding for the removal of dangerous cladding in all qualifying residential properties over 11m. Upfront government funding is something RICS have long called for. However, leaseholders may still be required to contribute to the Government funded remediation, subject to caps, and clarity on the costs that will be incurred per flat will be required for a valuation to proceed.

There has been no announcement of any Government funding for remediation for blocks below 11m.

  1. Does the EWS1 assessment cover general fire safety measures?

The EWS1 form assessment is to be carried out for valuation purposes only. It’s about the safety of different types of external wall systems used in residential buildings located across the United Kingdom and will determine whether or not remedial works are required, thereby affecting value. It is not designed to assess other fire safety features or risks and should never be used to determine the overall risk of fire to a building. It is not a life safety certificate.

The person responsible for the building (Responsible Person under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005) should have a fire risk assessment (FRA) for the building as this is an independent legal requirement that is already in place and has not in the past commonly incorporated assessment of external wall materials. Note this has changed with the Fire Safety Act coming into force in England and updated FRAs will need to cover the external cladding where this exists.

  1. Does a nil valuation mean a flat is worthless?

No. ‘Nil valuations’ is a technical term used in the process of valuing a property for mortgage lending purposes, where a valuer is unable to provide a value at that moment in time i.e. when the valuers’ inspection takes place due to insufficient information being available. Often a ‘nil valuation’ signals that the lender or valuer requires further information before a valuation can be made, rather than a property being unsellable.

  1. Why are lenders asking for EWS1 forms below 18m?

Changes in Government advice in January 2020 (the Consolidated Advice Note or CAN), at the time brought all residential buildings into scope, which meant many residential buildings below 18m may have required an EWS1 form. For buildings of five or six storeys, there could be a significant amount of cladding on the building, or a check could be due to the types of panels on the building. For buildings of four storeys or fewer, there may be present the most dangerous types of cladding present. The RICS guidance note for Valuers published 08 March 2021 provides information on proportionate criteria where an EWS1 should be required. However, lenders may have differing criteria although RICS has been working hard with lenders to ensure the guidance is adopted.

A valuer should always have a rationale to justify the request for the EWS1 form, which may be the lenders requirements.

  1. Is the EWS1 form stopping homeowners from selling their flats?

EWS1 form assessments are not the cause of people finding themselves unable to move. In fact, they are helping to keep the home buying and selling market from stalling in exceptional circumstances, with over 6000 completed to date.

Following Grenfell it became apparent, despite having building regulation certification, buildings may have fire safety concerns. This halted the market in some areas largely over concerns about the extent of future costs of remedial works, and where they would fall. The EWS1 form review process was introduced jointly by RICS and UK Finance and BSA, to inform buyers, owners, lenders and valuers on the extent of works needed on the highest risk properties.

However, since the introduction of the EWS1 form in Dec 2019, Government advice to check a wall system was extended beyond the original scope, increasing the number of buildings needing checks.

Some of the issues arising from this change have now been addressed and eased following the publication of RICS guidance, which clarifies where EWS1 forms are needed in a proportionate manner. Given the relatively small pool of fire engineers that are competent and have sufficient insurance to allow them to undertake these reviews, delays are unfortunately occurring in some cases (see below for more on the RICS training course to address this challenge). However, the latest guidance should result in fewer EWS1 form requests which will enable the fire engineers to focus on the high-risk buildings. Ultimately, the EWS1 form process provides much-needed clarity for purchasers, and lenders, around where works are required, avoids financial loss and helps to keep people safe.

  1. Does the PAS 9980:2022 Assessing the external wall fire risk in multi-occupied residential buildings published in January 2022 replace the need for an EWS1 form? 

Not at the moment. The code of practice for external walls is for building surveyors and fire engineers who will need to carry out mandatory EWS fire risk assessments on buildings as part of the Fire Safety Act 2021 amendments. Under PAS 9980:2022 – the document which will provide a consistent methodology for carrying out an external wall appraisal - there will still need to be a summary report for valuers and lenders to ensure that the property is safe to lend on and does not have remediation costs affecting value. In time, updated FRAs with EWS appraisals (where appropriate) will be carried out for all blocks, and RICS envisages the need for an EWS1 Form will then drop away.

  1. Are existing EWS1 Forms completed prior to PAS 9980 being published, still valid?

All EWS1 Forms completed to date are valid for 5 years; unless the building owner wishes to commission a new EWS assessment in accordance with PAS 9980, which may or may not result in a different rating in an EWS1 Form. Individual lender policy should be consulted to confirm that forms completed prior to the publication of PAS9980 are still accepted.

  1. Following the release of the cladding guidance on the 8 March 2021, can you clarify the difference between 25% or a significant amount? 

Our intention is that cladding that is on one quarter of all of the visible elevations, standing at ground level, equivalent to approximately one quarter of the whole building, is normally a significant amount.

For example, in considering whether there is a significant amount of cladding on a building, cladding that links multiple floors of a building or is around the main route of escape is likely to require remediation

As stated in the guidance, these criteria are guidance and professional judgement will need to be applied. We have received information that valuers will generally regard combustible cladding that covers more than a quarter of any single elevation of the building (even if there is not cladding on a quarter of the whole building) as significant because this will link multiple floors and be more likely to require expensive remediation. We have therefore amended the online decision tree to reflect this.

  1. What impact will the new Fire Safety Act have on EWS1?

This Act closes the loophole that the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 had overlooked 17 years ago - on the need for the external walls of a building and fire doors to individual flats to be assessed as part of the requirement for a Fire Risk Assessment (FRA) of the building.

Now there can be no question (in England & Wales) that from now on, the Responsible Person has a legal responsibility to commission an updated FRA with the external walls and fire doors assessed too.

Until such time as all relevant buildings have updated FRAs with EWS assessments, we envisage that there will still be a need for an EWS1 Form to inform lenders and valuers if there are any likely remediation costs affecting value.

If under the Fire Safety Act’s new requirements, remedial works are identified, this is likely to have an impact on the value of a home depending on the cost and/or the liability for payment for the remediation works.

Valuers will need to be aware of any new updated FRA with an EWS assessment on the subject property, and also the properties being used as comparable evidence.

  1. Has the RICS guidance note on Valuation of properties in multi-storey, multi-occupancy residential buildings with cladding, UK 1st edition March 2021 changed in light of Government announcements? Should RICS Valuers working in this area revise their approach?

Our guidance on valuing property in multi-occupancy residential buildings with cladding, published in March 2021 following extensive consultation, was produced with reference to the Government’s fire safety advice in the Consolidated Advice Note, published by MHCLG in January 2020.

July 2021

Following the publication of Ministerial Statement (HCWS228) on building safety in medium and lower-rise blocks of flats’ announced in Parliament on 21st July 2021 RICS reviewed and consulted its impact on the cladding guidance. In December 2021, the Independent Standards & Regulation Board confirmed that no changes would be made to the guidance. You can read the response here.

January 2022

The Secretary of State announced on 10th January 2022 that the Consolidated Advice Note was to be immediately withdrawn. As part of RICS’ role to continue to work with valuers and lenders to ensure that a proportionate approach is being applied consistently in practice, the RICS Standards and Regulation Board reviewed the guidance to ensure the criteria within it remained fit for purpose.  

While RICS understands that this is an urgent issue, which affects many leaseholders and prospective buyers, RICS’ guidance on valuing property in multi-occupancy residential buildings with cladding (published in March 2021 following extensive consultation), ensures that valuers meet their legal responsibilities to lenders and buyers to give them accurate information on the value of a property - only asking for EWS1 forms on the riskiest properties in a proportionate approach.

RICS’ Standards and Regulation Board will keep the guidance under review, including if further Government measures are announced to help ease the terrible impacts on leaseholders from cladding.

December 2022

All valuers are reminded of the new Valuation approach for multi-storey, multi-occupancy residential buildings with cladding professional standard 2022 and this should be read in conjunction with the original March 2021 guidance.

  1. Why didn’t RICS change its guidance immediately in line with Government announcements?

The RICS guidance already allowed lenders to provide instructions to valuers that enable them to follow statements made by Government immediately.

24. What are the Building Safety (Leaseholder Protections) (Information etc.) (England) Regulations 2022

These Regulations implement new provisions in the Building Safety Act 2022 (“the Act”) in England only. They will ensure that leaseholders don’t need to provide information on multiple occasions; will offer leaseholders more protections against costs that are a result of failures by the developer or building owner; and finally give them more protections in the event they need to take their case to the First-tier Tribunal.

Further details can be found here

Govt information for leaseholders and other residents on fire safety and remediation of historic building safety defects

25. What are the Fire Safety (England) Regulations 2022?

Building owners or their appointed managing agents acting as the Responsible Person, will have to provide information, (including also a secure information box, floor plans, wayfinding signage within the building, checks on fire doors) to the local Fire & Rescue Service on the external wall system (EWS) for all blocks 11m+ (generally 5-storeys or more). This information is for operational response by F&RS in the event of a fire, and will be added to their database of information for the building. This information will be legally required from 23 January 2023. Further information including helpsheets can be found here.

External Wall Systems Assessment Training Certificate Programme

26. How many more qualified chartered professionals will this course provide?

RICS has secured government funding to train up to 2,000 professionals to carry out EWS appraisals for buildings up to 18m (where there is the greater number of such buildings). Since its launch in late January 2021, the response has been very positive and we have enrolled qualified professionals in the RICS EWS Assessment training programme. There are currently over 100 successful completers of the course to date, and another 250 professionals progressing through the final stages of the programme.

The Fire Safety Act 2021 closed the loophole that existed previously in the Fire Safety Order (FSO) and now EWS assessments will have to be carried out as part of updated Fire Risk Assessments. Regardless of whether a lender requires an EWS1 Form to be signed or not (lenders instruction vary), we still envisage a strong demand for qualified competent and regulated EWS assessors.

There are a number of factors that will help drive this number including the solution for accessing professional indemnity insurance (PII). A new Government-backed EWS1 PII scheme was launched in September 2022.

27. What options can course completers sign off on and for what building height?

Completers of the RICS External Wall Assessment Training Programme should be capable of completing Option A or Option B of the EWS1 form below 18m.If the building is very complex or high risk, completers should consult an Incorporated Engineer (IEng) or a Chartered Engineer (CEng) registered with the Engineering Council through the IFE for advice on Option B if in any doubt.

For high-risk residential buildings above 18m, it is still expected that this assessment will be carried out by an Incorporated Engineer (IEng) or a Chartered Engineer (CEng) registered with the Engineering Council through the IFE. In some instances, course completers may be instructed to undertake the investigations and compile a survey report of a building wall for a IEng/CEng fire engineer to make the overall assessment.

The Government announcement of an underwritten EWS1 PII scheme for course completers may impose restrictions on the work to be carried out which is eligible for this PII cover. Further details on this scheme are available here.

28. How are Govt engaging about the capacity for EWS assessors required?

DLUHC have issued a Market Engagement exercise, which seeks to:

1. Ascertain market capacity, demand, and capability for carrying out Fire Risk Appraisals of External Walls (FRAEWs) – otherwise known as EWS assessments
2. Meet the Building Safety Fund’s (BSF) interim PAS assessor requirements (which may also be utilised for the 11m+ schemes over the short term)
3. Receive market feedback on the longer-term proposals for working with the market in line with Homes England’s model of delivery for the Mid-Rise programme.

FAQs updated as of 25 January 2023.